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History of turntablism

July 11th, 2007

foto da http://naturalsoundsystem.free.fr/checklist/index.php?d=072005 

Dalla pagina http://www.ilikemusic.com/make_music/History_Of_Turntablism-301 

The DJ and the noble craft of turntablism has grown from its humble
beginnings as recorded music sent over the airwaves for the first time
in 1906 to the emergence of the Superstar DJ, a multi-facted producer,
musician and businessman. Such DJs can now command thousands of pounds
per night, with annual spending in UK clubs alone at £1.7 billion.

"The DJ is an improvisational artist who has the world of recorded
sounds as his palette and the musical pleasure of a bunch of clubbers
as his canvas," say Bill Brewster and Frank Broughton, authors of Last
Night a DJ Saved My Life.

Technically a DJ's job is pretty demanding. You need a certain
level of skill to mix a series of records to create a flowing and
effective performance. DJs need to know how each track is structured
and must have a good ear and precise rhythm, to be able to tell if two
tracks are in tune and to merge the two seamlessly (or scratch up the
beats in an equally seamless manner).

Additionally, a basic knowledge of sound production/reproduction
and sound systems helps a DJ to get the most from volume, tone and
digital controls. And to really work the system and strengthen the
dynamics of a track/set, DJs fine-tune tone and tempo, use crossovers
between the treble, midrange, bass and sub-bass, and play around with
digital tools such as delay and reverb. It's not as easy as it looks.
Pure turntablist masters, ie scratch masters like Craze, Tony Vegas,
Prime Cuts and Plus One, may think that beat mixing is easy (mixing two
tracks into an ongoing sequence), but there's still a lot involved.
Evidently though it's a DJ's pure love of music and knowledge of what
tracks will get a crowd rocking, plus a good communication channel with
that crowd, that are his/her most required talents.

So how did this noble form of expression all begin?

The DJ throughout time, has been responsible for creating a tide of
interest in each new form, from rock n roll and disco to reggae, dance
music and hip hop.

Nearly a century ago the first record was played over the airwaves
and, with the help of youth culture, new musical forms, and the
advances in technology, the DJ has shaped the music of each time and
brought the masses what they want to hear. Here's a quick look at the
timeline of Turntablism.

1955 Turntable, custom-built by Edward P Casey of the Bronx, New York

:: History of Turntablism Timeline ::

1850s French Researchers develop the phonoautograph that records sound waves on a rotating cylinder.

1870s Thomas Edison develops a tinfoil phonograph or speaking
machine. He recited "Mary Had a Little Lamb" into the mouthpiece to
test the machine for the first time.

1877 Edison invents the first hand-cranked phonograph.

1887 Alexander Graham Bell unveils his graphophone that included a
floating stylus for clearer sound and used wax cylinders. Edison
replaces the original hand crank with a battery-driven motor and solid
wax cylinder.

1890 Musicians begin recording their music. The phonograph
cylinders could record 2-4 minutes of audio. Musicians set up recording
sessions with several phonographs recording simultaneously.

1892 Flat recording gramophone discs are invented.

1895 Edison begins mass production of the phonograph and amplifies the sound by adding a horn.

1906 THE FIRST EVER RADIO DJ: American Engineer, Reginald A Fessenden, was the first person to play a record over the airwaves.

1925 The microphone was invented, resulting in the redesign of reproduction equipment.

1931 EMI researcher Alan Dower Blumlein invents stereophonic sound for recording.

1939 Invention of the magnetic tape.

1940s DJs entertain troops overseas.

1950s The 45 RPM 7 inch record is invented.

1960s Modern electronics come to the fore within the sound and
music sectors, with the first Synthesizer created by Robert Moog. Dub
music and remixes emerge, pioneered by King Tubby. Reggae music gets
increasingly popular and the emergence of remix and rap music begins
toward the end of the 1960s.

Late 60s Osbourne Ruddock (King Tubby), Lee "Scratch" Perry and
Edward "Bunny" Lee set up and manage multi-track studios and become
major reggae producers.

1969 The first hip-hop DJ, Kool Herc, develops cutting breaks. Kook
Herc rapped over popular songs and extended short breaks by using two
identical records and looping the required segments using an audio

Technics Direct Drive System SP-10 was released

Early 70s Technics introduce the original SL-1200 as a hi-fi turntable.

1971 The first electronic band, Kraftwerk, are formed.

1975 The scratch is discovered by Grand Wizard Theodore.

1980s DJ Frankie Knuckles mixes 4/4 beats generated by a drum machine on top of soul and disco tunes at The Warehouse.

1980 Marshall Jefferson releases 'Move Your Body' and house music
is in full swing with 12" disco records with long percussion breaks
coming to the fore and creating House.

Grandmaster Flash creates the "breakbeat".

1980 Roland introduces the TB-303 bassline machine and the TR-808 drum machine.

1981 "The Adventures of Grandmaster Flash on the Wheels of Steel"
is the first release to include hip-hop DJ skills, with "The Message",
(the first rap record) by Grandmaster Flash and The Furious Five
becoming a massive hit one year later.

1982 Afrika Bambaata creates electro by sampling Kraftwerk on "Planet Rock".

mid 80s Samplers become affordable to the masses allowing musicians to capture and manipulate sounds.

New York Hip Hop DJS start using 'spinback' with the Technics 1200
to cut back and forth between two tracks to extend breaks and scratch.

1987 The DMC (Disco Mix Club) holds its first annual DJ Competition

1989 The rave scene is born from Acid House, with warehouse and
field parties and raves taking place round the M25 in the UK, arranged
via a secret network of pirate radio messages and flyer distribution.

90s Drum 'n Bass and Trip Hop emerge as evolving forms of breakbeat.

1990 – The first all turntable scratch band, "Shadow of the Prophet" form (Mix Master Mike and DJ Apollo).

1992 "Battlebreaks" was released, the first record of its kind.

1992 "In/Flux" is released by DJ Shadow who leans more towards sampling.

1996 The first ITF (International Turntablist Federation) champioinship competition takes place.

1998 Scratching is brought to the mainstream as Mix Master Mike joins the "Beastie Boys".

Turntablists such as Tony Vegas, Prime Cuts, Plus One, Craze and
others are currently amazing anyone who sees them in action with
impossibly good scratch mixing, proving that scratching is an art form
of its own. While Superstar DJs continue to jet around the world
getting paid squillions each year, and the beat goes on, and the DJs
power continues to grow – and we love it, because they give us music
and we adore music and so do them. Big up the DJ and the Turntablist.

end of Phile

qui potete trovare un file pdf sulla storia del turntablism: http://downloads.pedestrian.info/PedestrianHistoryofTurntablism.pdf 


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